Immigration law refers to national government policies which control the phenomenon of immigration to their country. Immigration law, regarding foreign citizens, is related to nationality law, which governs the legal status of people, in matters such as citizenship. Immigration laws vary from country to country, as well as according to the political climate of the times, as sentiments may sway from the widely inclusive to the deeply exclusive of new immigrants.

Immigration law regarding the citizens of a country is regulated by international law. Certain countries may maintain rather strict laws which regulate both the right of entry and internal rights, such as the duration of stay and the right to participate in government. Most countries have laws which designate a process for naturalization, by which immigrants may become citizens.

Canada at a glance

Canada at a glance
Canada has one of the most attractive immigration policies in the world. The united nations has voted Canada as one of the best places in the world to live. A strong economy over the years has led the government to develop some of the best social welfare programs in the world. The citizens and landed immigrants have equal rights. Canada has a diversified economy. Natural resources industries, such as forestry, mining, oil and gas extraction, farming and fishing contribute significantly in employment and export earnings. Canada is also global leader the fields of telecommunication, biotechnology, aerospace technologies and pharmaceuticals. Increasingly jobs involve work in service industries or in information technology along with the united states and Mexico, Canada is a partner in the North America free trade agreement.

Facts about Canada
Country of vast distances and endowed with rich natural resources, Canada is the world's second-largest country next to the Russian Federation. Canada became a self-governing country in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed at par with the us

Northern North America, Bordering The North Atlantic Ocean On The East, North Pacific Ocean On The West, And The Arctic Ocean On The North, North Of The USA.

Land boundaries
Shares its boundaries with the us total : 8,893km border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)Coastline: 202,080 KM

Due to its vastness varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north. There are many climatic variations in this huge country, ranging from the permanently frozen icecaps north to the British Columbia's west coast. The most populous regions, which are the country's south along the U.S. border, enjoy four distinct seasons.

Here daytime summer temperatures can rise to 350C and higher, while lows of -250C are usual in winter. More moderate temperatures are the norm in spring and fall.

Ottawa, in the province of Ontario.

As of July 2013, Canada's population was over 35.15 million.

Leading Cities
As of July 1, 2012, the main Canadian cities are Toronto (5.8 million), Montreal (3.9 million), Vancouver (2.4 million), Ottawa-hull, the national capital region (1.25 million).

Standard of Living
Using GDP per capita as the yardstick Canada is ranked 6th next only to us, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Germany, and Japan. And it rank improves if we consider factors like medical, life expectancy, education that enhance the "quality of life."

Health Care and Social Security
Except from dental services, basic health care, is free at the point of delivery for those over 65 and social aid recipients. Prescription drugs in most cases is dispensed free of charge. Canada also has an extensive social security network, including an old age pension, a family allowance, unemployment insurance and welfare.

English and French are the country's two official languages, though the province of new Brunswick is the only officially bilingual area in the country.

Ethnic Origin
In 2012, about 19% of the population reported "Canadian" as their single ethnic origin, with 17% reporting British isles-only ancestry and 9% French-only ancestry. About 10% reported a combination of British isles, French, or Canadian origin, with another 16% reporting an ancestry of British isles, French or Canadian in combination with some other origin. Some 28% reported origins other than the British isles, French or Canadian.

The educational system is not uniform in all provinces and differs from province to province. It includes six to eight years of elementary school, four or five years of secondary school and three or four years at the university undergraduate level.

Canada's most popular sports include swimming, ice hockey, cross-country and alpine skiing, baseball, tennis, basketball and golf. National sports of Canada are ice hockey and lacrosse.

Economy - Overview
Like the US, Canada is categorized as a rich high technology industrial nation, a market oriented economy and similar systems of production with high living standards. Post world war ii, a nation which had a rural economy developed itself into an urban and industrial one. This was largely due to an impressive growth of the mining, manufacturing and service sectors. The 1989 US-Canada free trade agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American free trade agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) triggered off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US. Nevertheless, given its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant canada enjoys solid economic prospects trade accounts for approximately a third of GDP. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with its principal trading partner, the United States, which absorbs more than 85% of Canadian exports. Almost 90% of the population lives within 160 kilometers of the us border.

Provinces and Territories

  • • Alberta (Edmonton)
  • • British Columbia (Victoria)
  • • Manitoba (Winnipeg)
  • • New Brunswick (Fredericton)
  • • Newfoundland (St. John's)
  • • Northwest Territories (Yellowknife)
  • • Yukon Territory (Whitehorse)
  • • Nova Scotia (Halifax)
  • • Nunavut (Iqaluit)
  • • Ontario (Toronto)
  • • Prince Edward Island Charlottetown)
  • • Quebec (Quebec city)
  • • Northwest Territories (Yellowknife)
  • • Yukon Territory (Whitehorse)
  • • Saskatchewan (Regina)

Quebec at a glance

  • • The largest province in Canada covering 1/6 of the total area of Canada
  • • Quebec is the second most densely populated city with 7.8 million people.
  • • Its real per capita GDP elevate by more than any other G7 countries barring the UK.
  • • In 2006 the economic growth accelerated to 2.5%
  • • High-technology industries are proliferating with immense speed.
  • • It is a land of immigrants and a multicultural province.

Quebec Government is currently the only province to have concluded a comprehensive agreement with the Government of Canada for the purpose of facilitating the formulation, coordination and implementation of immigration policies and programs with respect to the admission of foreign nationals to the province. BENEFITS TO IMMIGRANTS: Citizenship obtained after 3 years stay.

  • • High standard of living starlit with Free Medical facility for residents.
  • • Low crime-rate as well as powerful human rights.
  • • Quebec enjoys four seasons of bliss, viz., spring, summer, autumn and winter.
  • • With temperatures averaging between 5°C and 10°C.

Numerical Overview: Canada provided 1,87,190 permanent residencies in the first 3 quarters of 2004, of which 35,085 were for Quebec.
Quebec, thus accounts for 19% of the total permanent residencies provided in the period.
At the end of the third quarter, the leading source countries of immigrants were, in descending order, China, India, the Philippines, Pakistan and the United States. China and India retained their first and second place respectively.
Quebec is the largest province in Canada geographically, and the second most populous, after Ontario, with a population of 7,560,592 (Statistics Canada, October 2004). Quebec's primary and only official language is French, making up the bulk of the Francophone population in North America. Quebec is the only Canadian province where English is not an official language, and it is one of only two Canadian provinces where French is an official language (the other one being New Brunswick). The capital is Quebec City (or Ville de Quebec in French) and the largest city is Montreal (or Montreal in French). Geography: The province, Canada's largest, occupies a vast territory (nearly three times the size of France), most of which is very sparsely populated.
Quebec is located in eastern Canada, bordered by Ontario and Hudson Bay to the west, Atlantic Canada to the east, the United States (Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont and New York) to the south and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
The province's three largest hydro-electric projects are built on La Grande Riviere. The extreme north of the province, now called Nunavik, is subarctic or arctic and is home to part of the Inuit nation.
The most populated region is the St. Lawrence River Valley in the south, where the capital, Quebec City, and the largest city, Montreal, are situated. North of Montreal are the Laurentians, a range of ancient mountains, and to the east are the Appalachian Mountains which extends into the Eastern Townships and Gaspesie regions. The Gaspe Peninsula juts into the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the east. Climate: Quebec has a temperate climate with four very distinct seasons.
Quebec has four clearly demarcated seasons: a gentle, sunny spring, an often hot and humid summer, an autumn that blazes with vivid colours and a cold, snowy winter ideal for all kinds of winter sports.
Source: Environment Canada, Canadian Climate Normal, 1971-2000
Politics: The Lieutenant Governor represents Queen Elizabeth II as head of state. The head of government is the Premier (called Premier Ministre in French) who leads the largest party in the unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale, from which the Council of Ministers is appointed.
The government of Quebec awards an order of merit called the National Order of Quebec. It is inspired in part by the French Legion of Honour. It is conferred upon men and women born or living in Quebec (but non-Quebecers can be inducted as well) for outstanding achievements. Economy: The St. Lawrence River Valley is a fertile agricultural region, producing dairy products, fruit, vegetables, maple sugar (Quebec is the world's largest producer), and livestock.
North of the St. Lawrence River Valley, the territory of Quebec is extremely rich in resources in its coniferous forests, lakes, and rivers-pulp and paper, lumber, and hydroelectricity are still some of the province's most important industries.
High-tech industries are very important around Montreal. It includes the aerospace companies like Jet Manufacturer Bombardier, The Jet Engine company Pratt and Withney and the flight simulator builder CAE. Those companies and other major subcontractors make Quebec the fourth biggest player worldwide in the aviation industry. Culture: The Quebecois people, a people also found in small minorities of Canada and of the United States, consider Quebec their homeland. The Quebecois are the largest population of French speakers in the Americas. Most French Canadians live in Quebec, though there are other concentrations of francophones throughout Canada with varying degrees of ties to Quebec. (The Acadians of the Canadian Maritimes consider themselves an entirely separate group.)
Quebec is at once a North American society and the main French-speaking society on the continent. Montreal is the vibrant cosmopolitan metropolis of Quebec. History made Quebec a place where cultures meet, where people from all over the world experience America, but from a little distance and through a different eye. Often described as a crossroads between Europe and America, Quebec is home to people that has the privilege of being connected to the strong cultural currents of the United States, France, and the British Isles all at the same time.
Quebec is also home to 11 aboriginal cultures and that of a large Anglo-Quebecer minority of approximately 600,000 people. Demographics: Quebec represents 24% of the population of Canada. Quebec's fertility rate is now among the lowest in Canada. At 1.48, it is well below the replacement fertility rate of 2.1. This contrasts with the fertility rate before 1960 which was among the highest of the industrialized countries. Symbols & Emblems: The graphic emblem of Quebec is the iris, usually white on a blue background, as on the flag of Quebec. The avian emblem of Quebec is the snowy owl.
Quebec is sometimes referred to as "La Belle Province" which means "The Beautiful Province". Until the late 1970s, this phrase was displayed on Quebec licence plates. It has since been replaced by the province's official motto: "Je me souviens" which means "I remember". Where can you look for employment in Quebec: The economy of Quebec is diversified and post-industrial with a strong potential for growth.
In 2001, 74.7 per cent of Quebec workers worked in the tertiary sector (services like banking, finance, insurance, consultancy), 18.5 per cent in the manufacturing sector (industries, factories), 2.8 per cent in the primary sector (agriculture, forestry, fishing and allied activities), and 4.0 per cent in the construction sector. Approximately 85 per cent of all Quebec exports go to the United States. Strong Sectors: Aerospace:
Quebec's aerospace industry is ranked sixth in the world for its production value. Montreal is the second aerospace centre after Seattle (U.S). There are some 260 companies of the aerospace sector that employ 40,000 people. Various international organizations have established their headquarters in Quebec, notably the International Air Transport Association and the International Civil Aviation Organization. Ground Transportation: Quebec's ground transportation industry employs some 35,000 people and includes major original equipment manufacturers such as Bombardier, PACCAR, NovaBUS, Prevost CAR, Komatsu International, and many suppliers and sub-contractors. Information Technology: Employing over 100,000 workers, Quebec's information technology sector is strong and growing. Particularly strong are the sectors of telecommunications, multimedia software, computer services and consulting, microelectronics and components.
Some 10,000 people work for 115 telecommunication companies such as Ericsson, Motorola, and Mitec.
The multimedia sector is quite strong and even stronger since the arrival of Electronic Arts in 2003. Some 1200 people work for game development companies such as Ubi Soft, Microids, Strategy First, and A2M.
Notably, Montreal is home to two major creators of 3D animation software: Softimage and Discreet.
The computer services, software development, and consulting branch employ 60,000 specialized workers.
The microelectronics sector is strong, with 110 companies employing 12,900 people. The largest employers are Hyperchip, IBM, and Matrox.Optics & Photonics: In 2004, some 8000 people were employed in the Quebec optics and photonics industries. Research-related jobs are concentrated chiefly in the seven Quebec City region research centres, while production operations are mostly located in the Greater Montreal area. Quebec counts some 20 businesses in the laser, optical fibre, image processing, and related sectors. Biotechnology: Quebec has some 130 companies employing 4700 people in the biotechnology industry. It is ranked third in North America for its size, just after California and Massachusetts. Health Industry:
With 381 companies and 24,550 employees in the pharmaceutical, research and development, manufacturing, and related sectors, the Quebec health industry is one of the most important economic stimuli of modern Quebec. With the presence of some 20 multinationals such as Merck Frosst, Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer, Aventis Pharma, and Bristol-Myers Squibb, Montreal ranks eighth in North America for the number of jobs in the pharmaceutical sector. Tourism Industry: In 2002, tourism-related expenditures amounted to C$7.3 billion. The most visited cities are Montreal and Quebec City.
Apart from the above mentioned industries, Hydroelectricity, Aluminum, Magnesium and Wood remain major sources of employment. Quebec Presentation:The presentation is in the CD

Australia at a glance

Australia consists of six states and several territories. The states are New South Wales (NSW), Queensland (QLD), South Australia (SA), Tasmania (TAS), Victoria (VIC) and Western Australia (WA). The two major territories are the Northern Territory (NT) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT).

Australia has a prosperous Western-style mixed economy, with a per capita GDP on par with the four dominant Western European economies, and ranked third on the 2004 Human Development Index and sixth on The Economist world-wide quality-of-life index 2005. In recent years, the Australian economy has been resilient in the face of global economic downturn, with steady growth. Rising output in the domestic economy has been offsetting the global slump, and business and consumer confidence remains robust.

Most Australians live in urban areas. Sydney is the most populous city in Australia.

Less than 15 % of the population lives in rural areas. This creates lot of opportunities for immigrants who are ready to settle in these areas.

English is the main official and spoken language in Australia - 80 % of the population speaks only English at home according to the 2001 census. The three most common languages other than English spoken at home are Chinese languages (2.1 %), Italian (1.9 %) and Greek (1.4 %).

The Indian community in Australia:

The latest Census in 2001 recorded 95,460 India-born persons in Australia, an increase of 23 per cent from the 1996 Census. The 2001 distribution by State and territory showed New South Wales had the largest number with 37,930 followed by Victoria (30,690), Western Australia (13,102) and Queensland (7,190).


Among the India-born, 48.1 per cent had higher qualification* and 904 per cent had Certificate level qualification. *Higher qualification includes Postgraduate Degree, Graduate Diploma & Graduate Certificate and Bachelor Degree Advanced Diploma & Diploma Level Employment.

Of the 54,250 India-born who were employed, 55.4 per cent were employed in a Skilled occupation, 29.1 per cent in Semi-Skilled and 15.6 per cent in Unskilled. The corresponding rates in the total Australian population were 52.6, 28.9 and 18.6 per cent respectively Language.

The main languages spoken at home by Indian-born people in Australia were English (47.7 per cent), Hindi (15.6 per cent) and Punjabi (9.2 per cent).


At the 2001 Census the major religion amongst Indian-born were Hinduism (31,920 persons), Western Catholic (29,540 persons) and Sikhism (9,740 persons).

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